Skip to main content

NS2 Installation in Ubuntu 22.04

IOT - CoAP implementation in Contiki OS

Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a lightweight http protocol that reads and controls the sensors deployed for IoT.
It has actions like get, post, put, delete, observe, discover.

This coap can be accessed similar like http, For ex: to access a particular mote (Sensor) with IPv6 like this
The above line will fetch the sensor boards peripherals and one can control from the browser itself. Firefox has a Cu plugin to enable CoAP within the browser. CoAP is already available for all the devices like IOS, Android, Windows, Linux, Mac, etc,

So here is an example in contiki that shows how to use this coap based application using a border router.

Step 1: Contiki Selection

Open instant Contiki (Which runs on VMWare or Virtual Box)

Open Cooja from the Desktop directly or Open the Terminal and give the following steps

$] cd /home/user/contiki-2.7/tools/cooja
$] ant run 
If you want to simulate huge number of nodes then 
$] ant run_bigmem

Step 2: Selecting Border router

File - New Simulation -> Enter Simulation Name (Leave the defaults as it is ) and then Click "Create"

Click Add Motes -> Select Sky Mote

In the firmware, Select the following path /home/user/contiki-2.7/examples/ipv6/rpl-border-router/border-router.c
Click -> Compile (or Clean and then Compile), once compilation is over, Click Create motes and select the number of motes (1 in this case).

Step 3: Selecting the Er Example Server

Click Add Motes -> Sky Motes 
In the firmware, select the following path /home/user/er-rest-example/er-example-server.c 
Click Compile -> after compilation, click create motes and select the number of motes (2 in this case)

Step 4: Run the Simulation 

In the Simulation Control window, you can press the Start button to start the simulation. Since this application is deployed with IpV6 for all the nodes, it can be seen from the simulation that all the motes have the ipv6 addresses like this
mote 1: aaaa::212:7401:1:101 for Border router

A bridge has to be made between the border router and the other motes, to enable the bridge, Right Click Border Router Node -> Mote tools for Sky 1 ->  Serial Socket (SERVER) 

Step 5: Bridge the Border Router

Open a new terminal and select the path as given below

$] cd /home/user/examples/ipv6/rpl-border-router/
$] make connect-router-cooja 
It will ask to input the super user password, after you input, the ipv6 addresses will be assigned to the motes.
You may ping it using a new terminal, with the command "ping6 aaaa::212:7402:2:202"

Step 6: Read the sensors

You can read the sensors using the ipv6 addresses by opening the firefox browser.
Open the browser and input the following addresses in a new tab

coap://[aaaa::212:7402:2:202] or any other sensor mote
Refer the images given below

The above two images shows firefox browser with cu plugin to open the ipv6 address and read the sensor values. In the first picture the toggle value 1 for Red LED is sent from the browser by selecting the POST button (OutGoing), Upon receiving the RED LED is glowing in the Mote that indicates that the node is accepting the inputs remotely. 

Thus coAP is very handy when deals with the motes attributes. You may refer the following video for exact explanation of CoAP in Contiki

T S Pradeep Kumar


  1. Hello Sir,I have gone through your video CoAP implementation in Contiki OS and found very interesting. Thanks for sharing such video.I have downloaded contiki OS  and when I read the sensors using the ipv6 addresses by opening the firefox browser and providing following IP addersscoap://[aaaa::212:7402:2:202] ; getting the error 4.04Not Found. I could see well-known and core resources bot not the others.
    Plz help me.
    Appreciate for your reply.
    Thanking You,
    Dr. Nikita Kulakarni

  2. same problem,
    were you able to solve it??


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Installation of NS2 (ns-2.35) in Ubuntu 20.04

Installation of NS2 (ns-2.35) in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Step 1: Install the basic libraries like      $] sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev Step 2: install gcc-4.8 and g++-4.8 open the file using sudo mode $] sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list Include the following line deb bionic main universe $] sudo apt update $] sudo apt install gcc-4.8 g++-4.8 Step 3:  Unzip the ns2 packages to home folder $] tar zxvf ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz $] cd ns-allinone-2.35/ns-2.35 Modify the following make files. ~ns-2.35/ Change @CC@ to gcc-4.8 change @CXX@ to g++-4.8 ~nam-1.15/ ~xgraph-12.2/ ~otcl-1.14/ Change in all places  @CC@ to gcc-4.8 @CPP@ or @CXX@ to g++-4.8 open the file: ~ns-2.35/linkstate/ls.h Change at the Line no 137  void eraseAll() { erase(baseMap::begin(), baseMap::end()); } to This void eraseAll() { this->erase(baseMap::begin(), baseMap::end()); } All changes made Step 4: Open a new termi

Installing ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 | Complete Instructions

In this post, we are going to see how to install ns-3.36.1 in Ubuntu 22.04. You can follow the video for complete details Tools used in this simulation: NS3 version ns-3.36.1  OS Used: Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Installation of NS3 (ns-3.36.1) There are some changes in the ns3 installation procedure and the dependencies. So open a terminal and issue the following commands Step 1:  Prerequisites $ sudo apt update In the following packages, all the required dependencies are taken care and you can install all these packages for the complete use of ns3. $ sudo apt install g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-

VPL Jail Server Installation | Virtual Programming Laboratory with Moodle

Virtual Programming Laboratory (VPL)  This post tells you how to install VPL Jail Server Installation in Ubuntu 20.04 and how to configure it using Moodle Learning Management System. VPL - Virtual Programming Laboratory  For full installation with complete description, follow the video What is VPL? VPL is Virtual Programming Laboratory which is a tool for programming assignments, evaluation and running of programs. The programming languages supported by VPL is C, C++, Java, Python, Perl, PHP, NodeJS, Verilog, etc. Step 1 - Install  VPN Jail Server Installation  My Server configuration  16GB RAM and 16 Core PRocessor (Intel Xeon)  Virtual Machine  Ubuntu 20.04 (64 bit OS). To download the softwares  Unzip or untar the above file in the home folder (in my case it is /home/tspradeepkumar/ ) $ cd vpl-jail-system-2.7.2/ $ sudo ./install-vpl-sh VPL Jail Server Installation This will take some time based on your internet connection: To Star