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Showing posts from August, 2018

How to add a Protocol in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial #13

How to add a new protocol in ns2

I am going to use the version ns-2.35
protoname was one of the best unicast routing protocol for ns2.


Protoname -> Simp


protoname -> simp

you can download the  source code from

There are totally 5 files in the source code converted to 

protoname.h -> simp.h 

protoname_pkt.h -> simp_pkt.h -> 

protoname_rtable.h -> simp_rtable.h

New Protocol Implementation

In this new protocol,  we have to

1. Add the source code (the 5 files given above)

2. existing code modification (within ns2)

3. Make an entry in the

4. Recompile ns2

5. Test the protocol using a TCL file.

Addition of source code is done.

Existing code modification - Very important.

in ns2, inforamtion about compilation is scattered... we need to make modifications at multiple locations. What are the files that are needed for modification.

all the file locations are he…

Blackhole attack in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial # 12

How to add a black hole attack in AODV protocol in ns2.  You can download the source codes. 
Black hole is the basic attack in a network, here we are going mitigate this attack in ns2.
Trust value, based on the trust value, if the value is less, then we can make it as an attacker node.
High trust, medium trust and low trust (integer)
Trusted or not (boolean)
To make a node attacker node (preferanly a black hole attack, how to do that?)
AODV protocol as it is easy to implement in ns2.

Step 1: Declare the attacker variable We will two files aodv.h and files  in aodv.h file,  create a variable name as given below in the protected scope

bool attacker;
Step 2: initialize the attacker variable as false. In file, initialize the attacker to be false inside the constructor.

Step 3: if a node is a blackhole, what happens to attacker value in the command() function of file inside the block  if(argc==2), include the following lines
if(strncasecmp(argv[1], "blackhol…

Finding Energy, node position and speed in AODV - NS2 Tutorial # 11.1

AODV - Part 2

Finding the node position, energy and speed of the node while it is forwarding a packet.

By default, these codes are not there in AODV, so we are going to modify or append in AODV protocol..

Step 1:

Open aodv.h and, these two files will be modified

Step 2:

Declare variables in aodv.h file in protected mode

double xpos,ypos,zpos,energy_t;

int n_speed;

MobileNode *t_node;

FILE *fp;

Step 3:

initialize these values inside the constrctor of file





Step 4:

add the following statements to the forward() function of

fprintf(fp,"Position is X, Y, Z, Node Speed,Energy\n");


((MobileNode*) t_node)->getLoc(&xpos,&ypos,&zpos);

fprintf(fp,"%d %f %f %f",index,xpos,ypos,zpos);




AODV simulation in NS2 (Part 1) - NS2 Tutorial # 11

Lecture 11 - AODV - Part 1
Todays topic on AODV protocol

AODV - Adhoc Ondemand Distance Vector
the location of the source code for Aodv is in the folder


My suggestion is
Always try to understand the header file first.. later you can move on to source file (.cc files)
I will go through aodv.h file first and then file next....
let me explain....

I should know where my work is residing, for example in AODV

should I work on

Routing TableEnergy ManagementQuality oif ServiceLink FailureLogs or tracingNeighbour managementAttacks (Black hole, gray hole, etc...)Security
so prefer to stay at the header files first...
Now the action begins.
how do i modify the AODV protocol as per my small piece of algorithm...
I would like to print the nodes that are forwarding the packets.
Two information will be recorded in a text file separately..

Name of the file: aodv_output.dat data recorded will be: forwarded packet, node index (node number).

For this, please open the aodv.h and aod…

Creation of a New Agent in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial # 10

To create an new Agent in NS2 that describes the OTcl and C++ linkages

We know that the file is stored in the folder

Open the file ns-2.35/ and make an entry of your own file (in this case, it is

Find a vairable inside the called


and make an entry there as shown below pradeep/tspagent.o \

Save the file and open a terminal, go to the folder ~ns-2.35/ and execute the command one by one

$] ./configure
$] make

Correct any mistakes or errors in your .cc file and run the above commands.
Successful OTcl and C++ linkages....

Thank you and Stay tuned for more lectures

Next lecture will be on AODV protocol and its modification.

Refer my website for downloading the source code and refer my videos at

Share and Subscribe.

Thank you......

Download the files here

T S Pradeep Kumar

Comparison of AODV, DSR and DSDV in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial # 9

Performance Evaluation of Adhoc Routing Protocols using NS2

Very old Project as well as a topic, but this will give an idea of how to compare multiple protocols or agents.

1 hour Project*

See the video for the full project

* - you should know ns2 already
should know how to write AWK scripts
Should know about energy model
Should know about wireless networks and protocols

To know the above concepts, check my Ns2 Lecture series videos in Youtube and come back to this video

AODV - Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector
DSDV - Destination Sequenced Distance Vector
DSR - Dynamic Source Routing

Lcture 8 - AWK Scripts
Average throughput
Instant throughput
Residual Energy
Packet Delivery ratio

To download the source codes, visit

Going inside the project

Step 1:
Use the same network and same disntace, energy, etc when you compare multiple protocols

Step 2:
Generate Scenario, You need not write the code in TCL (of course you can modif…

AWK Scripts for NS2 - NS2 Tutorial # 8

This is one of the important in ns2 as we are going to analyse the performance metrics of the network

In this session, we are going to see the following metrics.

1. Average Throughput

2. instant Throughput

3. Packet Delivery Ratio

4. Residual Energy of the nodes.

A - Aho

W - Weinberger

K - Keninghan

Easy to implement and process.






In ns2, new trace format, there could be as many as 52 columns. Each column specify some parameters. Viewers are requested to go through these parameters through the documentation.

in aAWK,

$1 refers 1st column

$2 refers 2nd column and so on...

awk can be run using either of these commands

$] awk -f filename.awk

$] gawk -f filename.awk

Average throughput is done

You can download this source code in

Instant Throughput

with two values to plot the characteristics.

Residual Energy of the individual nodes AND ALSO THE AVERAGE RESIDUAL ENERGY OF ALL NODES.

We have seen four awk scripts

1. Avera…