How to add a Protocol in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial #13

How to add a new protocol in ns2

I am going to use the version ns-2.35

protoname was one of the best unicast routing protocol for ns2.


Protoname -> Simp


protoname -> simp

you can download teh source code from

There are totally 5 files in the source code converted to 

protoname.h -> simp.h 

protoname_pkt.h -> simp_pkt.h -> 

protoname_rtable.h -> simp_rtable.h

In this new protocol,  we have to

1. Add the source code (the 5 files given above)

2. existing code modification (within ns2)

3. Make an entry in the

4. Recompile ns2

5. Test the protocol using a TCL file.

Addition of source code is done.

Existing code modification - Very important.

in ns2, inforamtion about compilation is scattered... we need to make modifications at multiple locations. What are the files that are needed for modification.

all the file locations are here.

To add a packet data


to add OTCL Data




To add Tracing data



To maintain or add a queue



We are going to add a packet called as PT_SIMP...

we are done with packet.h


ns-default.tcl (1 modifications)

ns-packet.tcl (3 modifications)

ns-lib.tcl (2 modifications)

queuing is done in (1 modification)

Finally, trace and cmu-trace.h also done.

Now recompiling ns2.

Before that, copy the source code in to ns2's path.

we have to create a folder simp/ inside the ns-allinone-2.35/ns-2.35/

paste all the files in the above folder.

Make an entry in the, in the variable called as OBJ_CC=/

Make the entry only for the .cc files and not for the .h files.

We have 5 total files, but only two .cc files, so it is enough to make an entry for the two .cc files alone as given below

    simp/simp.o simp/simp_rtable.o \

An entry is made in

Now, compile it using the command

$] ./configure

$] make

To check whether the compilation is successful, check for the .o files according to the .cc files.

Here we have two .o files  called



Now testing the protocol with a tcl file. LEt us do that now...

The name of the tcl file is simp.tcl

$] ns simp.tcl

It is my home folder (/home/pradeepkumar/)

Success for getting the output.

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T S Pradeep Kumar

Blackhole attack in ns2 - NS2 Tutorial # 12

How to add a black hole attack in AODV protocol in ns2. 
You can download the source codes. 

Black hole is the basic attack in a network, here we are going mitigate this attack in ns2.

Trust value, based on the trust value, if the value is less, then we can make it as an attacker node.

High trust, medium trust and low trust (integer)

Trusted or not (boolean)

To make a node attacker node (preferanly a black hole attack, how to do that?)

AODV protocol as it is easy to implement in ns2.

Step 1: Declare the attacker variable
We will two files aodv.h and files 
in aodv.h file, 
create a variable name as given below in the protected scope

bool attacker;

Step 2: initialize the attacker variable as false.
In file, initialize the attacker to be false inside the constructor.

Step 3: if a node is a blackhole, what happens to attacker value
in the command() function of file inside the block 
if(argc==2), include the following lines

if(strncasecmp(argv[1], "blackhole") == 0) {
      return TCL_OK;

Step 4: If the node is an attacker node, what it will do?
printf("Packets dropped by node number %d is %d \n",index,t_count++);

Open the terminal and go to ~ns-2.35/ and execute the command 

$] make 

If no errors, in the above logic your compilation is successful.

Step 5: Run the TCL file with AODV protocol, with Attacker code and without attacker code and compare both the results.

$] ns AODV.tcl

You can compare the node with attacker and without attacker
Here is the comparison for an attacker node (node number 5)

When node 5 was an Attacker node, these are the results
Number of generated packets: 4
Number of sent packets: 2
Number of forwarded packets: 2
Number of received packets: 22
Number of dropped packets: 16
Number of lost packets: 0
Number of sent bytes: 204
Number of forwarded bytes: 88
Number of received bytes: 1000
Number of dropped bytes: 472
Minimal packet size: 40
Maximal packet size: 102
Average packet size: 49.6923

When node 5 was a good node, here is the result

Number of generated packets: 446
Number of sent packets: 446
Number of forwarded packets: 443
Number of received packets: 465
Number of dropped packets: 0
Number of lost packets: 0
Number of sent bytes: 373736
Number of forwarded bytes: 347724
Number of received bytes: 348764
Number of dropped bytes: 0
Minimal packet size: 32
Maximal packet size: 1598
Average packet size: 790.4165

You can watch for my forthcoming video (preferably tomorrow) on Tracegraph. Which is used in this tutorial.

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T S Pradeep Kumar