Skip to main content

MANET Routing Protocols using ns3


Download the Code here:

Check the Video for Detailed instruction and how to use the plots, graphs and source code.

Comparison of MANET routing Protocols 1. AODV
3. DSR
using NS3 (Network Simulator 3)
B.Tech, M.Tech, PhD...
1. Reactive Vs Proactive routing
2. PErformance comparison of MANET protocols
3. AODV Vs DSDV Comparison and also at my channel.

What Version: ns-3.29
My Ubunut OS is: Ubuntu 18.04

This file we are going to use for our simulation:

Once you under stand the code, now lets run this example

Step 1: Copy the above file in to ~ns-3.29/scratch/ folder

Step 2: Understand this code.
Step 3: Run this code
Open the terminal, Go to ns-3.29 and run the following command

$] ./waf --run scratch/manet-routing-compare

enable the following header file

#include "ns3/flo…

C Tokens

Tokens are classified as
  • Keywords
  • Identifiers
  • Operators
  • Constants
  • Special Symbols
Keywords are reserved by the compilers and keywords will not be redefined (means the keywords are not been declared as variable names, etc). There are standard 32 keywords in C compiler, and some compilers uses more keywords based on their specification. Here is the list of 32 keywords
auto break case char
const continue default do
double else enum extern
float for goto if
int long register return
short signed sizeof static
struct switch typedef union
unsigned void volatile while

  1. Identifiers are variable names declared inside the program.
  2. They use alphabets, number, symbols like _ and $
  3. They must begin with  alphabet or _
  4. They are case sensitive i.e Var_name is different from var_name
Some valid identifiers are
john Value r_sie x1
x2 Chennai Sum1 abcd
invalid identifiers
123 % (super) 25th
1st ab-d sum of total

operators are further classified into different categories like
  • Arithmetic operators
+  - for addition   1+3 = 4
-   for subtraction      3 – 2 = 1        
*  for multiplication 4* 2 = 8
/   for Division      4 / 2    = 2
% for modulo  4 % 3 = 1 (when 4 is divided by 3, the remainder is 1)
  • Increment/ Decrement operators
++  increment Ex: a++ or ++a
--  decrement Ex: a—or –a
  • relational Operators
< – less than
> – greater than
<= less than or equal to
>= greater than or equal to
== is equal to
  • logical operators
&&  - Logical AND
||   - Logical OR
!  - Logical NOT
  • bitwise operators
& Bitwise AND
| bitwise OR
^ bitwise XOR
~ one’s complement
<< shift left
>> shift right
  • Conditional Operators
? : Conditional operator
f =(a>b) ?a : b;
if the condition a> b is true then
a is assigned to f and if false then b is assigned to f
the statement can be rewritten as
  • Other Operators
= assignment operator (this is not equality operator, it just assigns the value to some other variable from right to left assignment)
Example: a=b means b is assigned to a
, comma operator (This is to separate the array variables, etc)
sizeof() operator (to find out the various sizes of the entities like int, char, array size, etc)
  • Special symbols
{} This to begin and end any statement, loop in C program
[] This is for specifying the array index (Ex: int a[10];)
()  This is used for functions in C and helpful for grouping arithmetical operations
  • Constants is an entity will never changes it value during the execution of the program
  • They are different from variables

  • Integer constant
Examples are 2, –1, 0, 345, 324, etc
  • float Constant
Examples are 3.0, –2.345, 32.56, 4.65
  • String Constant
“abc”, “Pradeep Kumar”
  • Character constant
‘A’, ‘b’, ‘1’
There are two ways to declare a constant
1st way is to define at the preprocessing level
Example is
#define PI 31.4
2nd way is declare inside the program
const int a=3.14;
const is the keyword to define a constant.

 T S Pradeep Kumar


Popular posts from this blog

Routing in VANETs using ns3

Part 1
WAVE - Wireless Access for Vehicular environments. It might take more than an hour. The readers are requested to be patient. SUMO, VANETs, routing comparison 1. Explain the full source code (1550 lines of code) 2. Creating a real scenario using osm (Open Street Map Web Wizard) 3. Performance analysis for various vanet protocols. Location of the source code /home/pradeepkumar/ns-allinone-3.27/ns-3.27/src/wave/examples
Move this file to the scratch/ for inclusion of all modules. Step 1: Explanation of source code. Copy the file to scratch folder. This is just Part 1 of the VANET comparison

Part 2 Please watch the First Part before watching this video
Part 2 - Analysis of the results.
Please go through the first video (Part 1) and then watch this video (PArt 2)
#VANETs #NS3 #Routing
1. SUMO for web traffic ( 2. Convert this into mobility.tcl file and t…

ns3 installation in Ubuntu 16.04

This post serves the installation instructions of ns3 in ubuntu 16.04 version. Some of my students are working in ns3, this post will benefit them in installing ns3.

OS Used: Ubuntu 16.04.4
ns3 version: ns3 version 3.27

The same procedure will be applied for OS like Debian, Linux Mint.

Fresh installation of Ubuntu 16.04 Let you try the fresh installation of ubuntu in your hard disk along with windows.
Installation of ns3 dependencies ns3 needs so many dependencies, developmental libraries, drivers, etc. so install all those
$] sudo apt update  $] sudo apt upgrade
$] sudo apt-get install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev python-pygoocanvas python-pygraphviz cvs mercurial bzr git cmake p7zip-full python-matplotlib python-tk python-dev python-kiwi python-gnome2 python-gnome2-desktop-dev python-rsvg qt4-dev-tools qt4-qmake qt4-qmake qt4-default gnuplot-x11 wireshark
The above command make take some time to download, compile and install it, Be Patient. 
Installing ns3 Download the…

TORA Protocol in NS-2.35 (NS2)

This post tells you how to enable the TORA (Temporally ordered routing Algorithm) protocol in Network Simulator 2 (ns-2.35)

TORA is a protocol in wireless adhoc networks that works with timing parameters. NS-2.35 comes with the TORA protocol by default but it has to be tweaked manually to make it run.
This post will help you to do that.

You can watch this video for detailed instructions:

Step 1: Generate a Scenario for TORA protoco using NS2 Scenario Generator NSG Software.
We have created a tcl file using NSG2.1.jar

$] java -jar NSG2.1.jar

Three files have to be modified
~ns-2.35/tora/ There are various websites that tells you how to configure TORA by making changes to the above three files.  Change 1: tora.h In the tora.h file, go to the end of the File before the agent completes, include these two lines

#include <classifier/classifier-port.h>
protected: PortClassifier *dmux_;

Change 2: Open the and include the follow…