Skip to main content

TORA Protocol in NS-2.35 (NS2)

This post tells you how to enable the TORA (Temporally ordered routing Algorithm) protocol in Network Simulator 2 (ns-2.35)

TORA is a protocol in wireless adhoc networks that works with timing parameters. NS-2.35 comes with the TORA protocol by default but it has to be tweaked manually to make it run.
This post will help you to do that.

You can watch this video for detailed instructions:


Step 1: Generate a Scenario for TORA protoco using NS2 Scenario Generator NSG Software.
We have created a tcl file using NSG2.1.jar

$] java -jar NSG2.1.jar

Three files have to be modified
  • ~ns-2.35/tora/tora.cc
  • ~ns-2.35/tora/tora.h
  • ~ns-2.35/imep/imep.cc
There are various websites that tells you how to configure TORA by making changes to the above three files. 
Change 1: tora.h
In the tora.h file, go to the end of the File before the agent completes, include these two lines

#include <classifier/classifier-port.h>

protected:
PortClassifier *dmux_;

tora.h
Tora.h Change

Change 2: tora.cc
Open the tora.cc and include the following lines in the "int toraAgent::command(int argc, const char*const* argv) " function as indicated in the figure below.
else if (strcmp(argv[1], "port-dmux") == 0) {
       dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
       if (dmux_ == 0) {
         fprintf (stderr, "%s: %s lookup of %s failed\n", __FILE__, argv[1], argv[2]);
       return TCL_ERROR;
            }
            return TCL_OK;
            }
tora
Tora.cc Change

Change 3: imep.cc
In the file imep.cc, change the following line 


rexmitTimer.start(rexat - CURRENT_TIME);

to 
if (rexat-CURRENT_TIME<0.000001) // Preventing eternal loop.
rexmitTimer.start(0.000001);
else
rexmitTimer.start(rexat - CURRENT_TIME);

imep
IMEP Change

Step 3: 
We need to recompile ns2 using the command make from the folder ns-2.35/

Once the changes are made, Open the Terminal and go to ~ns-2.35 and execute the command  

prompt$] make 

Step 4: Run the tcl file now

$] ns TORA.tcl
This file is generated in Step 1

I will give all these files to you for your simulation.

Copy the tora.cc and tora.h file in your ns-2.35/tora folder

then copy the imep.cc file in to the ns-2.35/imep folder 

and then copy the TORA.tcl file in your home folder or any folder.

Then do the compilation $] make 
and then run the TORA.tcl file using $] ns TORA.tcl


Thanks for watching. Please subscribe and click the bell button for further updates.


TORA
TORA Protocol Animation


T S Pradeep Kumar

Comments

  1. In file included from tora/tora.cc:46:0:
    ./tora/tora.h:179:2: error: ‘PortClassifier’ does not name a type
    PortClassifier *dmux_;
    ^
    tora/tora.cc: In member function ‘virtual int toraAgent::command(int, const char* const*)’:
    tora/tora.cc:143:18: error: ‘dmux_’ was not declared in this scope
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    ^
    tora/tora.cc:143:27: error: ‘PortClassifier’ was not declared in this scope
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    ^
    tora/tora.cc:143:43: error: expected primary-expression before ‘)’ token
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    ^
    tora/tora.cc:143:44: error: expected ‘;’ before ‘TclObject’
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    ^
    make: *** [tora/tora.o] Error 1

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hello Sire, could you please make any tutorial on wireless network security with and example of simulation.thanks!!

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Routing in VANETs using ns3

Part 1
WAVE - Wireless Access for Vehicular environments. vanet-routing-compare.cc It might take more than an hour. The readers are requested to be patient. SUMO, VANETs, routing comparison 1. Explain the full source code (1550 lines of code) 2. Creating a real scenario using osm (Open Street Map Web Wizard) 3. Performance analysis for various vanet protocols. https://www.nsnam.com Location of the source code /home/pradeepkumar/ns-allinone-3.27/ns-3.27/src/wave/examples
Move this file to the scratch/ for inclusion of all modules. Step 1: Explanation of source code. Copy the file to scratch folder. This is just Part 1 of the VANET comparison

Part 2 Please watch the First Part before watching this video   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJYeIpUqjQI&t=850s
Part 2 - Analysis of the results.
Please go through the first video (Part 1) and then watch this video (PArt 2)
#VANETs #NS3 #Routing
1. SUMO for web traffic (osmWebWizard.py) 2. Convert this into mobility.tcl file and t…

ns3 installation in Ubuntu 16.04

This post serves the installation instructions of ns3 in ubuntu 16.04 version. Some of my students are working in ns3, this post will benefit them in installing ns3.

OS Used: Ubuntu 16.04.4
ns3 version: ns3 version 3.27

The same procedure will be applied for OS like Debian, Linux Mint.

Fresh installation of Ubuntu 16.04 Let you try the fresh installation of ubuntu in your hard disk along with windows.
Installation of ns3 dependencies ns3 needs so many dependencies, developmental libraries, drivers, etc. so install all those
$] sudo apt update  $] sudo apt upgrade
$] sudo apt-get install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev python-pygoocanvas python-pygraphviz cvs mercurial bzr git cmake p7zip-full python-matplotlib python-tk python-dev python-kiwi python-gnome2 python-gnome2-desktop-dev python-rsvg qt4-dev-tools qt4-qmake qt4-qmake qt4-default gnuplot-x11 wireshark
The above command make take some time to download, compile and install it, Be Patient. 
Installing ns3 Download the…