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TORA Protocol in NS-2.35 (NS2)

This post tells you how to enable the TORA (Temporally ordered routing Algorithm) protocol in Network Simulator 2 (ns-2.35)

TORA is a protocol in wireless adhoc networks that works with timing parameters. NS-2.35 comes with the TORA protocol by default but it has to be tweaked manually to make it run.
This post will help you to do that.

You can watch this video for detailed instructions:

Step 1: Generate a Scenario for TORA protoco using NS2 Scenario Generator NSG Software.
We have created a tcl file using NSG2.1.jar

$] java -jar NSG2.1.jar

Three files have to be modified
  • ~ns-2.35/tora/
  • ~ns-2.35/tora/tora.h
  • ~ns-2.35/imep/
There are various websites that tells you how to configure TORA by making changes to the above three files. 
Change 1: tora.h
In the tora.h file, go to the end of the File before the agent completes, include these two lines

#include <classifier/classifier-port.h>

PortClassifier *dmux_;

Tora.h Change

Change 2:
Open the and include the following lines in the "int toraAgent::command(int argc, const char*const* argv) " function as indicated in the figure below.
else if (strcmp(argv[1], "port-dmux") == 0) {
       dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
       if (dmux_ == 0) {
         fprintf (stderr, "%s: %s lookup of %s failed\n", __FILE__, argv[1], argv[2]);
       return TCL_ERROR;
            return TCL_OK;
tora Change

Change 3:
In the file, change the following line 

rexmitTimer.start(rexat - CURRENT_TIME);

if (rexat-CURRENT_TIME<0.000001) // Preventing eternal loop.
rexmitTimer.start(rexat - CURRENT_TIME);

IMEP Change

Step 3: 
We need to recompile ns2 using the command make from the folder ns-2.35/

Once the changes are made, Open the Terminal and go to ~ns-2.35 and execute the command  

prompt$] make 

Step 4: Run the tcl file now

$] ns TORA.tcl
This file is generated in Step 1

I will give all these files to you for your simulation.

Copy the and tora.h file in your ns-2.35/tora folder

then copy the file in to the ns-2.35/imep folder 

and then copy the TORA.tcl file in your home folder or any folder.

Then do the compilation $] make 
and then run the TORA.tcl file using $] ns TORA.tcl

Thanks for watching. Please subscribe and click the bell button for further updates.

TORA Protocol Animation

T S Pradeep Kumar


  1. In file included from tora/
    ./tora/tora.h:179:2: error: ‘PortClassifier’ does not name a type
    PortClassifier *dmux_;
    tora/ In member function ‘virtual int toraAgent::command(int, const char* const*)’:
    tora/ error: ‘dmux_’ was not declared in this scope
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    tora/ error: ‘PortClassifier’ was not declared in this scope
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    tora/ error: expected primary-expression before ‘)’ token
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    tora/ error: expected ‘;’ before ‘TclObject’
    dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
    make: *** [tora/tora.o] Error 1

  2. Hello Sire, could you please make any tutorial on wireless network security with and example of simulation.thanks!!


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