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Installing ns-3.37 and ns-3.35 in Ubuntu | Ubuntu 22.04 | NS3

Multiple Versions of ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 In this post, we are going to install two versions of ns3 namely ns-3.35 and ns-3.37  My OS is : Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Long Term Support) ns-3.35 uses waf and (./waf --run scratch/first)  ns-3.37 uses cmake  (./ns3 run scratch/first.cc) So we will install both the packages  Go through the video for complete instructions To start with  $ sudo apt update  $ sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev  I have downloaded both the versions of ns3 fr

Page Directory, Page table and Memory Mapping Functions

Page Directories and Page Tables 
Page directories and the page tables for the user and the kernel segment is managed by the kernel itself.
The short identifier for the page directory is pgd, pmd (page middle directory) and the short identifier for the page table is pte.
The data type for the page directory and the page table is respectively pgd_t, pmd_t and pte_t. 

Functions  relevant to Page directory
  • pgd_val(), pmd_val() - These functions allow to access the real value of the directory entry (either 32 bit or 64bit).
  • pgd_alloc(), pmd_alloc() - provides the memory page for the respective page directory.  
  • pgd_free(), pmd_free() - The directories are freed.
  • pgd_clear, pmd_clear() - deletes the entry in the page directory.
  • pgd_present, pmd_present() - checks whether the directoryentry refers to the page middle directory or page table, returns apositive result if there is an entry present, else returns a negativevalue.
  • pgd_none(), pmd_none() - just the reverse of pgd_present(), pmd_present()
  • set_pgd(), set_pmd() - the kernel fills the page directory and the page middle directory with entries.
Functions related to page tables
  • pte_val() -returns the value of the page table
  • pte_alloc(), pte_alloc_kernel() -allocating the page table entry
  • pte_free(), pte_free_kernel() - free a page table,
  • pte_page() -page table entry finds a pointer into the mem_map which contains all the physical memory pages of the computer.
  • set_pte() -the values of the page table entry are set, but the entry must either not be present or cannot be updated by the hardware.
Memory Mapping Functions

In the header file sys/mman.h, the functions about memory mapping is provided
extern __ptr_t mmap(__ptr_t addr, size_t len, int prot, int flags, int fd, __off_t off);
From the offset off, mmap() maps the file or the device to which the file descriptor fd refers as virtual memory area. There is also a flag to be used for anonymous mapping.
extern int munmap(_ptr_t addr, size_t len);
The above function is to unmap the memory that is already mapped to the user segment.
extern int mprotect(_ptr_t addr, size_t len, int prot);
the above function is to be provide new protection attributes to the particular area of the memory.

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