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Installing ns-3.37 and ns-3.35 in Ubuntu | Ubuntu 22.04 | NS3

Multiple Versions of ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 In this post, we are going to install two versions of ns3 namely ns-3.35 and ns-3.37  My OS is : Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Long Term Support) ns-3.35 uses waf and (./waf --run scratch/first)  ns-3.37 uses cmake  (./ns3 run scratch/first.cc) So we will install both the packages  Go through the video for complete instructions To start with  $ sudo apt update  $ sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev  I have downloaded both the versions of ns3 fr

Inter process Communication in Linux Kernel (IPC)

When two processes trying to access a resource is called race condition.

Main challenge is to avoid the race condition, the following method is usually adopted to avoid the race condition

  1. use of shared memory can prevent race condition
  2. Use of threads. Threads use the same address space when switching it to other threads(so same page directories and tables), whereas processes uses different address which leads to exchange of page directories and page tables. This is made with the help of POSIX Threads.

Forms of IPC

  1. Resource Sharing (system V Shared memory )
  2. Synchronization (Mutex, Semaphores)
  3. Connection oriented data exchange (Virtual Sockets, Pipes, named Pipes(FIFO))
  4. Connectionless data exchange (Signals)

Linux implements all forms of IPC

Synchronization in the Kernel

When multiple processors are used, how each processor is synchronized in the kernel is what described in this section.

Processor can acquire a spinlock whenever it wanted to access a resource.

typedef struct

{

volatile unsigned int lock; //default value is 1

}spinlock_t;

  • whenever a lock is wanted, it is set to 0 and during unlock it is set to 1
  • the bus access to the other processors are blocked during the processing of this command (spinlock)
  • if spinlock cannot be set, the processor waits in a loop until a lock variable is released again.
  • single processor do not need spinlock

Other than spinlock, there is one more lock called the Read write lock

typedef struct

{

volatile unsigned int lock;

}rwlock_t;

Semaphore

struct semaphore

{

atomic_t count;

int sleepers;

wait_queue_head_t *wait;

};

  • The word count is declared with the type atomic_t indicates that the atomic means it does not leads to any race condition
  • up() is a function which increments the count variable and wakes up all the sleeping processes when the count value is less than or equal to 0
  • down() is the function which decrements the count variable, also increments the sleepers variable.
  • the sum of sleepers and count is the correct value of the semaphore

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