Skip to main content

Installing ns-3.37 and ns-3.35 in Ubuntu | Ubuntu 22.04 | NS3

Multiple Versions of ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 In this post, we are going to install two versions of ns3 namely ns-3.35 and ns-3.37  My OS is : Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Long Term Support) ns-3.35 uses waf and (./waf --run scratch/first)  ns-3.37 uses cmake  (./ns3 run scratch/first.cc) So we will install both the packages  Go through the video for complete instructions To start with  $ sudo apt update  $ sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev  I have downloaded both the versions of ns3 fr

Main Algorithms of a Linux Kernel

Signals

  • Signals are one of the oldest facilities of Inter Process Communication.
  • Signals are used to inform the processes about the events.
  • signals will be sent via the following function (by the Kernel)

int send_sig_info(int sig, struct siginfo *info, struct task_struct *);

sig – refers the signal number

info – refers the sender

t – refers to the tasks (the kernel may send signals to many processes)

Booting the System

There are many bootloaders available for linux, the common ones being the LILO and the GRUB loader

LILO – LInux LOader

GRUB – GRand unified Bootloader

The steps while booting the kernel (only relevant steps are given)

  • Entry point at start which is available at arch/x86/boot/setup.S (This is responsible for initializing the hardware (assembler code)
  • Once the hardware is initialized, the process is switched to protected mode by setting a bit word in the machine status word.
  • Next the assembler instruction,       jmpi 0×100000 _KERNEL_CS, jumps to the start address of the 32 bit code of the actual operating system kernel and continues from startup_32 and in the file arch/x86/kernel/head.S . More sections of the hardwares are initialized here like Memory Management unit (Page tables), the Co processor, and the environment (stack, environment,etc)
  • The first C function start_kernel() from init/main.c is called
  • the following list the assembly linkage of the start_kernel function

asmlinkage void __init start_kernel(void)

{

char * command_line;

printk(linux_banner); //print kernel, the banner

setup_arch(&command_line);//architecture dependent codes relevant to x86

trap_init();

init_IRQ(); //hardware interrupt initialization

sched_init(); //initialize the schedules

time_init();

softirq_init(); //soft interrupts

console_init();//initialize the console

init_modules();//initialize the modules (device drivers)

…..}

  • the init is called (will be searched in /sbin/init or /etc/init or /bin/init). if the init is not available, then a shell (/bin/bash) will be opened for debugging

Hardware  interrupts (IRQ)

Interrupts are used to allow the hardware to communicate with the operating system, there are two problems while writing interrupt routine,

  • firstly, The interrupt routines should serve the hardware as quickly as possible
  • secondly, large amount is to be handled by the interrupt routine

This can be solved by the following mechanisms

  • disabling all the software interrupts while servicing the hardware interrupts.
  • the processing of data is carried out asynchronously by the software interrupts through “tasklets ” or “bottom halves”

Software Interrupts

  • It is like a hardware interrupt but can be started only at certain times
  • The number of interrupts is limited
  • enum {HI_SOFTIRQ, NET_TX_SOFTIRQ, NET_RX_SOFTIRQ,TASKLET_SOFTIRQ}; the date types tells the software interrupts for hi priority software interrupts, Network Tranmssion and Receiving Interrupt and tasklet interrupt). upon interrupt is generated, the Interrupt routine will be executed

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Installation of NS2 (ns-2.35) in Ubuntu 20.04

Installation of NS2 (ns-2.35) in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Step 1: Install the basic libraries like      $] sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev Step 2: install gcc-4.8 and g++-4.8 open the file using sudo mode $] sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list Include the following line deb http://in.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic main universe $] sudo apt update $] sudo apt install gcc-4.8 g++-4.8 Step 3:  Unzip the ns2 packages to home folder $] tar zxvf ns-allinone-2.35.tar.gz $] cd ns-allinone-2.35/ns-2.35 Modify the following make files. ~ns-2.35/Makefile.in Change @CC@ to gcc-4.8 change @CXX@ to g++-4.8 ~nam-1.15/Makefile.in ~xgraph-12.2/Makefile.in ~otcl-1.14/Makefile.in Change in all places  @CC@ to gcc-4.8 @CPP@ or @CXX@ to g++-4.8 open the file: ~ns-2.35/linkstate/ls.h Change at the Line no 137  void eraseAll() { erase(baseMap::begin(), baseMap::end()); } to This void eraseAll() { this->erase(baseMap::begin(), baseMap::end()); } All changes made Step 4: Open a new termi

Installing ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 | Complete Instructions

In this post, we are going to see how to install ns-3.36.1 in Ubuntu 22.04. You can follow the video for complete details Tools used in this simulation: NS3 version ns-3.36.1  OS Used: Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Installation of NS3 (ns-3.36.1) There are some changes in the ns3 installation procedure and the dependencies. So open a terminal and issue the following commands Step 1:  Prerequisites $ sudo apt update In the following packages, all the required dependencies are taken care and you can install all these packages for the complete use of ns3. $ sudo apt install g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-

VPL Jail Server Installation | Virtual Programming Laboratory with Moodle

Virtual Programming Laboratory (VPL)  This post tells you how to install VPL Jail Server Installation in Ubuntu 20.04 and how to configure it using Moodle Learning Management System. VPL - Virtual Programming Laboratory  For full installation with complete description, follow the video What is VPL? VPL is Virtual Programming Laboratory which is a tool for programming assignments, evaluation and running of programs. The programming languages supported by VPL is C, C++, Java, Python, Perl, PHP, NodeJS, Verilog, etc. Step 1 - Install  VPN Jail Server Installation  My Server configuration  16GB RAM and 16 Core PRocessor (Intel Xeon)  Virtual Machine  Ubuntu 20.04 (64 bit OS). To download the softwares  https://vpl.dis.ulpgc.es/index.php/home/download  Unzip or untar the above file in the home folder (in my case it is /home/tspradeepkumar/ ) $ cd vpl-jail-system-2.7.2/ $ sudo ./install-vpl-sh VPL Jail Server Installation This will take some time based on your internet connection: To Star