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Installing ns-3.37 and ns-3.35 in Ubuntu | Ubuntu 22.04 | NS3

Multiple Versions of ns3 in Ubuntu 22.04 In this post, we are going to install two versions of ns3 namely ns-3.35 and ns-3.37  My OS is : Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Long Term Support) ns-3.35 uses waf and (./waf --run scratch/first)  ns-3.37 uses cmake  (./ns3 run scratch/first.cc) So we will install both the packages  Go through the video for complete instructions To start with  $ sudo apt update  $ sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev g++ python3 python3-dev pkg-config sqlite3 cmake python3-setuptools git qtbase5-dev qtchooser qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev-tools gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar gsl-bin libgsl-dev libgslcblas0 wireshark tcpdump sqlite sqlite3 libsqlite3-dev  libxml2 libxml2-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 libclang-dev llvm-dev automake python3-pip libxml2 libxml2-dev libboost-all-dev  I have downloaded both the versions of ns3 fr

Introduction to Fault Tolerance

Fault Tolerance Techniques

  • Introduction
    • Hardware Faults – Occurs due to a physical defect of a system like a broken wire or a logic struck at 0 in a gate.
    • Software faults – occurs due to a bug introduced in a system so the software misbehaves for a given set of inputs
    • Error – the manifestation of a fault is the error (Fault may occur anytime, but only the error manifests that fault)
    • Fault Latency – the time between the onset of fault and its manifestation as an error is the fault latency
    • Error Recovery
      • Forward Error Recovery – the error is masked without any computations having to be redone.
      • Backward Error Recovery - the system is rolled back to a moment in time before the error is believed to have occurred.


What Causes Failures?

There are three main causes of failures:

  • Errors in the specification or design
    • Mistakes in the specification and Design are very difficult to guard.
    • Many hardware failures and all software failures occur due to such mistakes.
    • It is difficult to ensure that the specification is completely right.
  • Defects in the components
    • Hardware components can develop defects.
    • Wear and tear of components
  • Environmental effects
    • Devices can be subjected to whole array of stresses, depending on the application.
    • High ambient temperatures can melt components or otherwise damage them.


Fault Types

Faults are classified according to temporal and output behavior

  • Temporal behavior classification

    A(t)    B(t)




    C(t)    D(t)


  • Permanent faults
    • Does not die away with time, remains until it is repaired
    • Ex. Broken wires
    • From the above Diagram: A(t)>0; B(t) =C(t) = D(t)=0
  • Intermittent Fault
    • It cycles between the fault active and fault benign states.
    • Eg. Caused by loose wires    
    • From the above Diagram: A(T)>0; B(t)>0; D(t)>0; C(t)=0
  • Transient Fault
    • Dies away after some time
    • Ex: environmental effects
    • From the above Diagram: A(t)>0; C(t)>0; B(t)=D(t)=0
  • Output behavior classification
    • Malicious
    • Non malicious

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