Skip to main content

Processors in Embedded Systems

Processors in Embedded Systems

A Processor in an Embedded Systems contains two essential parts

* Control Unit - Which fetches the instruction from the system memory

* Execution unit

Arithmetic and Logic Unit is also the part of Execution Unit

It performs Data Transfer and data conversion operations


Types of processors


General Purpose Processors (GPP)

  • Microprocessor

  • Microcontroller

  • Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)

  • Media Processors

    • useful for sound and image processing applications

Application Specific System Processors

The processors which are relevant to a particular application like

  • Digital TV

  • HDTV decoders

  • Set Top Boxes

  • DVD Player



Important considerations while selecting a processor

  • Instruction Set

  • Maximum bits in an operand like (8 or 16 or 32 bit)

  • Clock frequency in MHz and processing speed in MIPS (Millions of Instructions per second)

  • ability to solve the complex algorithms used in meeting the deadline for their processing



Microprocessors

It is a VLSI Chip which has a Central Processing Unit (CPU), which may have some optional components like Cache memory, Floating Point Unit (FPU),etc.



Microcontrollers

Microcontroller contains functional circuits and application specific circuits



Functional Circuits are

  • Microprocessor

  • Memory (RAM, ROM, Flash)

  • Timer (Also Watch Dog Timer)

  • Interrupt Controller

  • I/O Ports (Parallel Ports )

  • UART for Serial Communication.

Application Specific Circuits

  • LAN Controllers

  • DMA Controller (Direct Memory Access)

  • Printer Controller

  • Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)

  • Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

  • Modem

but now a days, lot of embedded systems comes with ADC, DAC,Modem and DMA Controllers.



Digital Signal Processors


  • They are useful in developing applications like Video, audio signal processing,
  • Analog signals like ECG, EEG, Seismic Signals, etc are all processed using Digital Signal Processors.
  • Most of the DSPs are inbuilt with MAC Units (Multiply and Accumulate Units)
  • Texas instruments TM series are some of the example of DSPs

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Installing ns-3.34 in Ubuntu 20.04

This post shows how to install ns 3.34 in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS Prerequisites: Fresh installation of Ubuntu Version 20.04 LTS  ns3.34 can be downloaded from here Follow the video link for complete step by step instructions on the installation.  This version fixes the compilation issues of vanet-routing-compare.cc (bug in ns3.33)  Issue the following commands after opening a terminal  $ sudo apt update $ sudo apt install g++ python3 python3-dev python-dev pkg-config sqlite3 python3-setuptools git qt5-default gir1.2-goocanvas-2.0 python3-gi python3-gi-cairo python3-pygraphviz gir1.2-gtk-3.0 ipython3 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev autoconf cvs bzr unrar openmpi-bin openmpi-common openmpi-doc libopenmpi-dev tcpdump wireshark libxml2 libxml2-dev Unzip or untar the ns-allinone-3.34.tar.bz2 in the home folder (in my case its /home/pradeepkumar) $ cd ns-allinone-3.34/ $ ./build.py --enable-examples --enable-tests  Once the installation is completed, you may get an output show

Installation of ns3 in Windows 10 and Windows 11 OS using WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux)

This post shows how to install ns-3.33 in Windows 10 through WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux) This posts works for Windows 11 also (I have tested it on a Windows 11 ISO and it works the Same way as mentioned in the following post.) This post will work for ns-3.3x version. Prerequisites : Install Windows Subsystem for Linux with GUI: Please refer the following video  System Information: OS used: Windows 10 and WSL (Ubuntu 20.04) GUI: XServer for Windows NS3 Version: ns-3.33 See the following complete video on how to install ns3 in Windows 10 Step 0 : Open XLaunch Step 1 :  Open WSL using PowerShell and open it as Administrator Command:/  wsl $ xfce4-session The GUI of Ubuntu Opens within Windows 10 OS. Step 2 : Download ns3 from nsnam.org website through Mozilla Firefox browser Step 3: Open a Terminal  $ sudo apt update $ sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev python3-pygraphviz cvs mercurial bzr git cmake p7zip-full python3-matplotlib python-tk python3-dev qt5-q

Installing NS-3.32 in Ubuntu 20.04

This is about installing ns version 3.32 in Ubuntu 20.04 LTS. #ns3 #ns3 .32 #networksimulation The commands used in the video are given here. $] sudo apt update $] sudo apt install build-essential autoconf automake libxmu-dev python3-pygraphviz cvs mercurial bzr git cmake p7zip-full python3-matplotlib python-tk python3-dev qt5-qmake qt5-default gnuplot-x11 wireshark Download the ns-allinone-3.32.tar.bz2 package from nsnam.org and copy it to /home/ folder See the full video for detailed instructions Extract it either in GUI or using command $] tar jxvf ns-allinone-3.32.tar.bz2 $] cd ns-allinone-3.32/ $] ./build.py --enable-examples --enable-tests The above command will take some time to install all the packages  You can see the output as shown below ns3 To check whether ns3 installed successfully, use the following commands. $] cd ns-3.32/ $] ./waf --run hello-simulator You should get the output as Hello Simulator $] ./waf --run first This is the example from the ns-3.32/exa